Mravčík, V., Pitoňák, M., Hejzák, R., Janíková, B., & Procházka, I. (2018). HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Czech Republic and Related Factors: Comparison of Key Populations of People who Inject Drugs and Men who Have Sex with Men.


The HIV epidemiological situation has worsened in the past decade in the Czech Republic. This paper analyses relevant factors from the perspective of two key populations–men who have sex with men (MSM) and people who inject drugs (PWID).

A non-systematic literature review comparing relevant factors such as risk behaviours, preventive measures, and stigma in both populations.

A total of 286 newly diagnosed HIV cases were reported in 2016. Sex between men accounted for 74.5%(and has been rising recently), the proportion of PWID was only 2.4%. HIV prevalence among MSM exceeds 5% regionally (in Prague), while among PWID it is close to zero. Sharing of injecting equipment among PWID seems to be decreasing, the trend in high-risk sexual behaviour among MSM is unknown. There is significantly higher coverage and provision of preventive measures in PWIDs as compared to MSM. There is a lack of support for effective interventions such as post-or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PEP and PrEP). Destigmatisation of drug use has been a part of the drug policy for a long time, the destigmatisation of MSM has not been incorporated into the HIV prevention strategy yet.

HIV prevention in MSM should be scaled up and include state-of-the-art strategies such as PrEP and target the stigma attached to HIV and MSM.