Compared to heterosexuals, non-heterosexuals report: a) higher overall prevalence of internalizing mental disorders such as depression and anxiety; b) several-fold higher levels of suicidal behavior; c) elevated rates of tobacco, alcohol, and substance (ab)use; d) higher rates of risky-sexual behaviors that include higher risks of contracting STD’s. This review explicates two of the most salient explanatory frameworks – Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory (MST) and Hatzenbuehler’s Psychological Mediation Framework (PMF) available for explaining these health outcomes. Prospects for future transdiagnostic interventions are outlined.

Keywords: Minority stress; Mental health; Stigma; LGBTQ psychology; Sexual orientation; Syndemics